Application of Multi-Functional Cultural Relics Microfiber Cloth in Cultural Relics Protection
- A commonly used cultural relic dust removal method
The dust removal methods of cultural relics are generally divided into chemical and physical methods: 1) Chemical methods, that is, liquid cleaning agents such as water, organic solvents, active agents, etc. to remove dust on cultural relics. . 2) Physical methods, that is, use instruments or dust-removing materials to remove dust from cultural relics, and the dust-removing effect is related to the tools used. The choice of the dust removal method must first consider the safety of the cultural relics under the premise of considering the material and state of the cultural relics. Generally, physical methods are preferred for dedusting cultural relics, which are safer than chemical methods. Physical methods commonly used instruments include: special vacuum cleaners, modified sputum suction devices and art-specific spray guns, etc.; dust removal materials include: various brushes, cotton, cotton swabs, towels (pure cotton or Microfiber Cloth ), various sponges, adhesive tapes, all-purpose Clay, dough and chewing gum, etc. According to the different conditions of the cultural relics, selecting suitable instruments and materials to remove dust, the results are mixed.
2. Research and development of “multi-functional Microfiber Cloth“
Most of the cultural relics of weaving and embroidery handed down in the Palace Museum’s collection have bright colors, and they are prone to dipping marks, streaking, and fading when exposed to solvents such as water. The dust removal of such cultural relics is very difficult. Some of them are rotten and fragile in texture and easily damaged. Commonly used instruments and dust removal materials are difficult to remove the dust hidden between the fabric yarns. There was a need to find a way to be clean, non-destructive, and use less liquid to handle. Through a lot of experiments, we have noticed that a material called “microfiber” can effectively remove or assist in the removal of dust from most embroidery artifacts. In the 1960s and 1970s, Japan developed composite microfibers and mass-produced them. In the 1980s, China carried out research on polyester and brocade composite split-type microfibers. The monofilament fineness of the ultra-fine fiber is less than 0. 44dteX (0.4den, the length of fiber equivalent to 1 gram weight can reach 22.5 kilometers) 3, small diameter, easy to blend, soft to the touch, the cross-section of the fiber is chrysanthemum-shaped, Increasing the fiber surface area increases the porosity of the fabric. Therefore, when acting on the surface of the object, the microfiber has a large contact surface with the dirt, which is easy to stick close and has a strong adsorption effect, which makes it easier to suck the attached dirt into the cloth, and it is not easy to cause scratches on the surface of the object. , And the water absorption speed is fast, and the water locking ability is strong. For this reason, microfiber woven fabrics are often made into Hair Turban, Microfiber Auto Cloth, and Microfiber cleaning Towel, Microfiber Bathrobe. We applied the microfiber cloths with different weaving methods seen in the market to different types of cultural relics, conducted a comparative test of dust removal and operation methods, evaluated the dust removal performance and application methods of each weaving method, and screened out suitable cultural relics. “Double-sided fleece” microfiber with low-risk factor and obvious dust-removing effect.
“Multifunctional cultural relic dust removal cloth” is based on the original “double-sided fleece”, redesigns the technical indicators of the fabric, strictly requires the fineness of the selected raw materials polyester fiber and nylon composite superfine fiber and increases the anti-downing process. , The length of the velvet is scientifically designed, the long-staple surface is suitable for dust removal, and the short-staple surface is used for polishing. The multi-functional “multi” is reflected in this. The “double-sided fleece” of the “microfiber cloth” is a non-mesh structure and will not damage cultural relics. Its highly elastic design can relieve the damage to cultural relics caused by gravity and increase the safety factor. Dyeing with white dyes will not cause color pollution to cultural relics = In the past, there were no rags specially used for dust removal in the field of cultural relics, and some textiles used for wiping and dust removal had problems in dust removal effect and safety. “Microfiber cloth” is a non-marking cleaning, extremely soft, smooth, and elastic to the touch. From the material itself and fabric design, it is a safe, efficient and innovative cultural relic dust removal material: It has been inspected by a professional textile testing organization, according to “G B18401-2010 National Basic Technical Specification for Textiles, pH value is 7. 0, neutral; with reference to “GB/T 22864-2009 Towels”, the water absorption is 2. It takes 4 seconds to completely wet, and the water absorption is excellent; according to “FZ/T01057-2007 Textile Fiber Identification Test Method”, the hair removal rate is 0. 3%, reaching 0.5%. The high-quality standard is below 5%, and various indicators meet the national standard.
3. Dust removal test and application
1. Dust removal of woven and embroidered cultural relics It is difficult to remove woven and embroidered cultural relics from the dusty characteristics of woven and embroidered cultural relics, that is, the finer the dust, the easier it is to penetrate into the fibers. Commonly used special vacuum cleaners for cultural relics with various brush heads are still effective for large particles. , while the smaller cannot be removed. Initially, we used microfiber fabrics for dust removal. 3 We experimented with a dusty chemical fiber brocade. In the first step, using a vacuum cleaner, the larger dust particles are sucked away, and the smaller dust remains on the original fabric. The second step is to use the “multifunctional cultural relic dust removal cloth” to rub and dip the dust to basically remove the dust, and no dust is seen under the microscope. The effect of dust removal for weaving and embroidery is good, and it can be cleaned without washing. Through the application of textile cultural relics in different preservation states and different organizational structures, it can be concluded that “the operation method of multi-functional cultural relic dust removal cloth is very important. For example, rotten fabrics are easily damaged, so pay attention to the strength of use during operation, and use microfiber The ability to absorb fine dust can be operated by means of “dipping”. The action of “wiping” must not be used. The first reason is that if the dust cloth adheres to large particles in the process of wiping, continuing to “wipe” will scratch the cultural relics. (Other types of cultural relics will also have this problem); secondly, for example, woven gold brocade made of multiple materials or cultural relics with embroidery, “rubbing” will scratch the fibers of the cultural relics: when removing woolen fabrics (with fluff on the surface) In the case of cultural relics, if the method is improper, it will cause the “dusting cloth” to come off the lint, so it is necessary to be extra careful.
2. Dust removal and decontamination of metal cultural relics To remove the dirt on metal cultural relics, vacuum cleaners, brushes, cotton swabs and ordinary rags (cotton or chemical fiber) are commonly used to remove some of the dust deposited in the utensils and grooves. Gold utensils cannot be removed by ordinary rags. The “microfiber cloth” long-staple surface is suitable for dust removal, and the dust can be removed wherever it goes; the short-staple surface has a grinding function, which is easy to remove the scale and partial rust outside the gold layer. The copper bowl before and after the short suede surface is polished, and after the “microfiber cloth” is wiped, it has a special luster, delicate and soft (common rags are difficult to achieve this effect). Dust removal and rust removal on the top of the gilt stupa: First, use the “microfiber cloth” long suede surface, and use the “dip” method to remove the surface dust. Then, use the short suede “wipe” technique to polish out the gilt layer. In the past, chemical agents were used to removing the rust layer. “Microfiber cloth” can remove part of the rust layer. We observed the used microfiber cloth under the microscope. No gold layer fell off, indicating that it is safe to use. “Microfiber cloth” only removes the attachments on the metal surface. Does not damage the background. Due to the extremely small fineness of the fibers, the “microfiber cloth” has a large contact surface between the “microfiber cloth” and the dirt and rust layer, and fits tightly. After repeated wiping, the dirt and rust layer can be removed from the metal surface, while The soft fibers will not damage the dense, high-hardness gilt layer and metal background, ensuring the safety of cultural relics. After descaling under the microscope 3. Lacquer, wood relics dust removal, and polishing The surface of lacquerware is smooth, use “multi-functional cultural relic microfiber cloth” to gently wipe, and the dust can remove some stubborn dirt on the surface of the utensils, and it can also be removed with a little force. The surface of the woodware can also achieve the effect of glazing and pulping. The principle is: for some wooden surfaces with protective glazing layers (wax, oil), if you use ordinary rags to polish, due to the thick fibers, there will be some fine dust residues on the glazing surface after wiping, which will absorb part of the light and reflect it to the surface. The light of the human eye will be less; and the microfiber cloth, because of its fine fiber, after wiping, in addition to the fine dust is removed, the wax or oil layer can further penetrate into the wood fiber gap, the absorbed light is reduced, and it is reflected the human eye. increased light, it will look brighter. You can also use “multi-functional cultural relics dusting cloth” with wax, oil, etc. to polish paint and wood. The effect can be described as “moisturizing and elegant”, which cannot be compared with ordinary cloth. “Microfiber cloth” has very fine fibers, which can store a lot of dust, and the fibers are soft and will not cause damage to paper and pictures. Even the fragile paper can be cleaned by controlling the strength and technique.
5. Porcelain dust removal “dusting cloth” can easily remove the dust attached to the complete glazed utensils. Compared with ordinary rags, the cleanliness is high, and it feels good to use. For glazed surfaces with cracks and cracks, the “dusting cloth” can be used. Take away part of the dust in the shallow layer of the gap to make the utensils appear cleaner.
6. The surface of the dust-removing glass of the glazed glassware is smooth, and the falling dust is easy to remove.
But for small pieces of glass inlaid in metal objects, dust removal is a problem. In the past, ordinary dust removal materials were used, and the dust was located in the grooves and seams of the utensils and could not be removed; using water washing would cause damage to the surrounding materials. Use a “dusting cloth” to easily remove dust and achieve a clean effect.
7. Oil painting dust removal
The surface of oil painting is rough and easy to be covered with dust. Usually use a brush, brush, etc. to sweep the dust, but the effect is not ideal. Use “multi-functional dust removal cloth”, use “kneading” and “sticking” techniques, and control the strength by hanging your wrist. Even if you encounter cracks, you can carefully absorb the dust. The dust removal effect is obvious. The upper yellow area has not been dusted, and the lower white area has been dusted.
8. Dust Removal of Feather Cultural Relics
Among the cultural relics in the Anhui Museum of the Palace Museum, there is a type of fan made from the right feather in the feathers, which is very difficult to remove dust after falling. The positive feather is composed of a rachis and pinnae, which are composed of a series of obliquely arranged branches. There are many featherlets obliquely growing on the feather branches, and the featherlets have featherlets on them, and the adjacent featherlets are hooked to each other by means of these featherlets, thus forming a tight vane. When removing the dust from the feathers, if you use a brush or other dust-removing materials to clean with a little more force, the small hooks of the feathers will be unhooked, and cracks will appear between the small branches of the feathers, which cannot be restored, affecting the appearance of the cultural relics. Use the “Multipurpose Microfiber Cloth” to pick up the dust, which makes the dust stick to the microfiber cloth, which is easy to handle and does not damage the feathers.
9. Descaling and polishing of tooth and bone cultural relics.
The tooth and bone cultural relics that have been wiped by “dusting cloth” are quite shiny and smooth, especially some grooves, bone seams and places that have turned dark, color Visibly lighter and lighter. The comparison can be visualized by using a three-dimensional video microscope.
10 . Polishing of jade and stone tools We have conducted a polishing experiment.
We tied a microfiber cleaning cloth to the rotating shaft to polish a piece of jade, and the treated jade became bright and smooth. If you add some light wax and oil to the “microfiber cloth” and polish it again, it will be a good polishing material. 11. The water absorption test is carried out in accordance with the test method of “GB/T 22864-2009 Towels”. Take three places on the front and back sides of the towel, use the sedimentation method to test the sedimentation time and calculate the average value. The sedimentation time is less than or equal to 1 0 seconds is qualified. The detection value of the microfiber cloth given by the detection station is 2 . 4 seconds, that is, the speed of water absorption is extremely fast. We did a non-standard water absorption experiment. We took the same size cotton towel and microfiber cloth commonly used in the Palace Museum’s mounting room, weighed the two, and poured water into them to observe and compare.
The above experiments show that the “dusting cloth” of the same size can absorb water faster than the “ordinary pure cotton towel”, and the water absorption is twice as large. The experiment compares the same weight of “microfiber cloth” and “ordinary cotton towel”, the former has a fast water absorption speed, and the water absorption capacity is 6 times that of the latter. In actual work, “dusting cloth” is used for the water absorption steps of book and painting repairing, and can replace “pure cotton towel”. “Multifunctional cultural relic dust removal cloth” is not only applied to the cultural relics of the above-mentioned materials but also can be used for dust removal and glazing of leather cultural relics. The “dipping” and “kneading” methods are used to remove the dust on the thangka, and the cultural relics can be wiped off without traces. Fingerprints, mimeographs, etc. left by the audience on the glass of the showcase.
The “microfiber cloth” material itself has no damage to the cultural relics and can minimize human damage during the implementation process. After use, no trace of dust can be seen by the human eye, and the degree of cleanliness is high enough so that many cultural relics can avoid washing and dust removal: Due to the strong practicability and great value of “microfiber cloth”, it has been awarded a utility model by the State Intellectual Property Office. patent. It is the first special rag in the field of cultural preservation. It has been widely used by hundreds of cultural and museum units and libraries in more than 20 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, as well as in Hong Kong and Macau, in restoration, warehouse arrangement and exhibition arrangement, and has become a “good helper” for cultural relic workers.
The above content is excerpted from the Palace Museum. Whether it is the dust removal of the museum or the collection of cultural relics as a personal hobby, choosing to use a more professional wipe is another kind of protection for antiques. I am Pattexgroup.com, a wholesale and customized professional cleaning cloth, please contact us.